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Which cells in the retina are responsible for lateral inhibition?

Which cells in the retina are responsible for lateral inhibition?

Lateral inhibition is produced in the retina by interneurons (horizontal and amacrine cells) that pool signals over a neighborhood of presynaptic feedforward cells (photoreceptors and bipolar cells) and send inhibitory signals back to them [14–17] (Fig 2)

What cells are in the fovea?

The fovea is not recognizable at this stage, because the central region of the retina, where the fovea will develop, consists primarily of several layers of ganglion cell bodies and inner nuclear layer cells (INL), presumably amacrine and bipolar cells (Figure 8, a)

Can the fovea be repaired?

Background and objective: Retinal folds are a rare complication after retinal detachment repair Surgery is required if the fovea is involved There are few surgical reports in the literature, describing various surgical approaches

Is the fovea the blind spot?

fovea, the blind spot The area where the optic nerve connects to the retina in the back of each eye is known as the optic disk There is a total absence of cones and rods in this area, and, consequently, each eye is completely blind in this spot

What is the fovea and why is it important?

The fovea is responsible for sharp central vision (also called foveal vision), which is necessary in humans for reading, driving, and any activity where visual detail is of primary importance

Is fovea and yellow spot same?

The yellow spot or macula is an oval yellow spot near the centre of the retina of the human eye It is the area of best vision where maximum amount of cone cells are presentIt is also known as fovea centralis and Macula Lutea Most of the sensory cells are present at this spot It is another name for the macula

What is the fovea responsible for?

The fovea centralis is located in the center of the macula lutea, a small, flat spot located exactly in the center of the posterior portion of the retina As the fovea is responsible for high-acuity vision it is densely saturated with cone photoreceptors

Why is the fovea depressed?

It has been postulated that the shape of the foveal depression might result from the balance between centrifugal forces pushing the inner retina and centripetal forces that pulling the foveal cones towards its center

What is a fovea in bone?

The fovea capitis is a small, oval-shaped dimple on the ball-shaped end (head) on top of your femur (thigh bone) It fits into a cup-shaped “socket” called the acetabulum in the lower part of your pelvic bone Together, the femoral head and acetabulum make up your hip join

What happens if the fovea is damaged?

When the fovea is compromised by disease or injury, the brain works, subconsciously, to find a position in the retina that it can use to develop a new fixation point — a pseudofovea — in a region of the retina with surviving photoreceptors

What is abnormal foveal contour?

The fovea is the site of pathology in many retinal diseases Some of the mechanisms of disease can be mechanical The vitreoretinal interface at the fovea can prove to be abnormal This relationship can lead to anteroposterior traction, causing blunting of the foveal contour and subsequent visual distortio

What is in the fovea?

The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye It is located in the center of the macula lutea of the retina Approximately half the nerve fibers in the optic nerve carry information from the fovea, while the remaining half carry information from the rest of the retina

What is a foveal reflex?

The foveal reflex is a bright pinpoint of light that is observed to move sideways or up and down in response to movement of the opthalmoscope Absence of the foveal reflex can occur with macular edema, central serous retinopathy, or other macular abnormalities such as macular dystrophy

What is foveal contour?

Foveal contour grading was devised according to the thickness of the fovea relative to the surrounding macula from OCT radial line scans: Grade 0, foveal depression relative to surrounding macula; Grade 1, relative flatness; and Grade 2, fovea thicker than surrounding macul

What is the macula and fovea?

Fovea: The pit or depression at the center of the macula that provides greatest visual acuity Macula: The portion of eye at the center of the retina that processes sharp, clear, straight-ahead vision Photoreceptors: The light sensing nerve cells (rods and cones) located in the retin

What is foveal thickness?

In A, foveal thickness is defined as the mean thickness within the central 1000-μm diameter area (the central blue circle on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study map) The mean foveal thickness is approximately 30 μm greater than the mean central foveal thickness

What is the epiretinal membrane?

An epiretinal membrane is a thin sheet of fibrous tissue that can develop on the surface of the macular area of the retina and cause a disturbance in vision

How serious is epiretinal membrane?

An epiretinal membrane will not cause total blindness – it will typically only affect the central vision in the affected eye, while peripheral or ‘side’ vision remains unaffected Sometimes, the condition can be very mild, and have no effect on vision at all

Should I have surgery for epiretinal membrane?

There is no wrong or right time to have epiretinal membrane surgery Some people may choose not to have surgery and to accept the distorted vision in one eye If you have good vision in the other eye, over time you will adapt to the distorted vision in the affected eye and this may no longer bother you

How successful is epiretinal membrane surgery?

Purpose: Surgery has been successful in removing epiretinal membranes (ERM) from the macula, allowing some improvement in vision in 80-90% of patients; however, complications are relatively frequent

How long does it take to recover from epiretinal membrane?

Following epiretinal membrane removal, the vision is typically more blurred and will gradually improve as the eye and retina heal Vision can gradually improve up to 3-6 months following surgery

Is epiretinal membrane surgery painful?

In the vast majority of epiretinal membrane peels, no sutures are required given the precision of the procedure and the instruments used This results in minimal discomfort during the recovery period

How long does it take to recover from epiretinal membrane surgery?

After the surgery, your eye may be swollen, red, or tender for several weeks You might have some pain in your eye and your vision may be blurry for a few days after the surgery You will need 2 to 4 weeks to recover before you can do your normal activities again

Can you watch TV after vitrectomy?

Watching TV and reading will cause no harm Your vision will remain blurred / poor for several weeks Often the vision is distorted after surgery This will vary depending on the type of operation, eg if a gas bubble is inserted into the eye, as the bubble shrinks you might see the edge of the bubble

Can you drive with a gas bubble in your eye?

You cannot fly in an airplane or drive aboveation if you have an air or gas bubble in your eye Talk to your doctor about the duration of this restriction When can I shower and wash my hair? You may shower or bathe when you get home, but avoid getting water in your eye during the first 2 weeks

Does vision improve after vitrectomy?

As with most medical conditions, the healthier the eye is before surgery, the more likely the eye will heal quickly and the vision will improve Some patients will note a decrease in vision for a few days following the procedure